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Independence Day. Nov 30, For example, if you try to lift a load using a lever, the weight of the load will resist the input force or the effort, but if the effort is strong enough, then the resulting force will produce the work required.
Our own bodies, as well as bodies of other animals also use the same principles and operate some body parts as levers, to minimize the energy needed to perform certain tasks, as we will show in examples below.
Class one levers are similar to seesaws in their construction. The fulcrum is located in the middle. The effort is on one end, while the resistance is on the other end.
The fulcrum for the levers in class two is located on one end of the lever, the effort is applied at the opposite end, and the resistance is close to the fulcrum, with the direction, opposite of the effort.
The design of class three levers is the opposite of the construction of class two levers. The fulcrum is still on one end of the lever, but the force closest to it is the effort, while the force on the other edge, acting in the opposite direction of the effort, is the resistance.
Some scales, balanced in the middle, operate as class one levers. Scissors are a combination of two class one levers; they allow us to cut thick materials that may be difficult to cut with a knife, for example.
The length of the handles allows decreasing the magnitude of the force, necessary for cutting. Conversely, placing the object to be cut further away from the pivot, which is the fulcrum, makes it more difficult to cut.
Scissors or shears, meant to cut thicker and harder materials like branches or sheet metal, often have longer handles to increase the torque.
In some cases, a spring is added to the design for mechanical advantage. Some specialized scissors have additional features. For example, trauma shears, meant to cut clothes away from the body of an injured person, have blades with rounded edges, to prevent injury to the skin.
Other scissors intended for use in the medical profession can have curved or sharp edges, depending on the intended use, and some are small enough to allow the surgeon to work with delicate tissue, while still having a mechanical advantage over other cutting instruments like knives.
Scissors are sometimes even used in eye surgery and can be as small as 6 cm long, with blades 2 cm long and shorter.
A crowbar is another tool classified as a class one lever, although it could be used as a class two or class three lever as well.
Often it is used to remove nails or to pry apart two connected elements. It can also be used to lift heavy objects, especially on small heights.
A crowbar is notorious for being used for burglary, although creative criminals would use any tool that would do the job.
In our bodies, the mechanics that operate the movement of a human head, as well as heads of many other animals, is an example of class one lever.
The head is balanced at the neck, which becomes a fulcrum. The effort is applied by the muscles on one side of the head, and the resistance is applied on the opposite side.
When enough force is applied, the head tilts in the direction of the output force, or the resistance. Our mouth, when used for chewing, as well as beaks of birds, are examples of class two levers.
So are nutcrackers. Nutcrackers can be made of metal or wood, and these days are often ornamental. In some cases, they are used solely for decoration, as the wooden nutcrackers in the shape of soldiers, kings, and other characters, popular in North America for displaying around Christmas time, as seasonal decorations.
Some believe that the decorative nutcrackers shaped as figurines originated in Germany, where it is still a popular local craft.
In the German countryside, they are often made to sell to tourists. These days it is more common to use simple and functional designs for cracking nuts and hard shells of lobsters and crabs.
The claws of lobsters and crabs are actually class two levers as well, working on a similar principle as nutcrackers. A garlic press is also similar in design to these devices and is a second class lever as well.
Not all chefs agree to use it, because some believe that the taste of pressed garlic is inferior, but others prefer pressed garlic for its more intense flavor, and for the ease of pressing it.
Our feet, as well as feet of some animals, also act as second class levers. The fulcrum is around the toes, and the muscles apply effort around the heel.
Our weight acts as resistance. Other examples of second class levers are wheelbarrows, brakes in vehicles, and doors, among others.
If we push a door near the fulcrum, it would be nearly impossible to open it, but we can easily swing it when applying force on the side, opposite from the hinges.
This is the reason for placing door handles on the side, opposite from the hinges. To increase torque and to reduce the force, needed to open it, the heavy door can be made wider.
Bottle openers also act as class two levers, in particular the stand-alone tools, not the ones attached to a wall or another surface.
Some of these openers are tools included in pocket knives, and some are small and can be carried on a keychain.
Sometimes a bottle opener can act as a class one lever, if placing the opener differently and pushing down on it, instead of up.
Our arms, when used to lift heavy objects, work as third-class levers. So do our legs when we push off the ground while walking or running.
In this case, the knees and elbows act as fulcrums. For example, the thrust produced by each of the Space Shuttle 's two Solid Rocket Boosters is 3,, pounds-force The value adopted in the International Service of Weights and Measures for the standard acceleration due to Earth's gravity is This value was the conventional reference for calculating the kilogram-force , a unit of force whose use has been deprecated since the introduction of SI.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Pound-force. Earth's gravitational pull on a one-pound mass.
For the unit of mass, see Pound mass. For the basis weight of paper, see Paper density. For the monetary unit, see Pound currency.
Main article: Foot—pound—second system. The newton is the SI derived unit for force in the metric system. Newtons can be abbreviated as N ; for example, 1 newton can be written as 1 N.
Pound-force is a unit of force equal to the force needed to move one pound of mass at a rate of The pound-force is a US customary and imperial unit of force.
A pound-force is sometimes also referred to as a pound of force.